What Is Value Chain Analysis?

What Is Value Chain Analysis? 什么是价值链分析?

As competition increases for high-quality products, low costs and excellent customer service, businesses must continually assess the value they create. One of the most valuable tools, the value chain analysis, breaks down each process of a business and creates opportunities for innovation. 随着高质量产品、低成本和优质客户服务的竞争加剧,企业必须不断评估它们所创造的价值。价值链分析是最有价值的工具之一,它分解了企业的每一个流程,并为创新创造了机会。

Value chain analysis can help companies in various ways. It can create change within a business, the products and services it offers, and its connections with other businesses and their customers or clients. The purpose of value chain analysis is “to create value that exceeds the cost of providing the product or service and generates a profit margin.” 价值链分析可以在很多方面帮助公司。它可以在一个企业、它提供的产品和服务,以及它与其他企业及其顾客或客户的联系中产生变化。价值链分析的目的是“创造价值,超过提供产品或服务的成本,并产生利润。”

Three goals that should take priority during an analysis for you to see change: 在分析过程中,你应该优先考虑三个目标:

  • Achieve the best/lowest costs, including process, transactional and handling costs for the entire supply chain. 实现最佳/最低的成本,包括整个供应链的流程、事务和处理成本。
  • Pursue the fastest cycle time performance. 追求最快的周期时间性能。
  • Identify and implement “best-in-class” practices for each core activity, subprocess, or process. 为每个核心活动、子流程或流程确定并实现“类内最佳”实践。

To conduct a value chain analysis, a business should begin by identifying each part of its production process, noting steps that can be eliminated and other possible improvements. In doing so, businesses can determine where the best value lies with customers, and expand or improve said value, resulting in either cost savings or enhanced production. At the end of the process, customers can enjoy high-quality products at lower costs. 要进行价值链分析,企业应该首先确定其生产过程的每个部分,指出可以消除的步骤和其它可能的改进。通过这样做,企业可以确定客户需要的最佳价值所在,并扩大或改进这些价值,从而节省成本或提高产量。在这个过程的最后,客户可以以较低的成本享受到高质量的产品。

What is a value chain? 什么是价值链?

A value chain is the full range of activities – including design, production, marketing and distribution – businesses conduct to bring a product or service from conception to delivery. For companies that produce goods, the value chain starts with the raw materials to make their products, and consists of everything added before the product is sold to consumers. 价值链是企业为使产品或服务从概念到交付而进行的全方位活动,包括设计、生产、营销和分销。对于生产产品的公司来说,价值链从制造产品的原材料开始,包括产品卖给消费者之前添加的所有资源。

Value chain vs. supply chain 价值链与供应链

A supply chain and value chain are similar in nature, but the value chain takes a few more things into consideration. 供应链和价值链在本质上是相似的,但是价值链需要考虑更多的事情。

The supply chain generally looks at the parts or materials that go into a product, where a product is manufactured, and the transportation logistics of getting it from the factory to the store. The value chain takes into consideration contributions such as product design, research and development, advertising and other marketing. Even the work of lawyers, bankers, accountants and IT experts who help make a product possible is taken into consideration. 供应链通常关注产品的零部件或材料,产品在哪里生产,以及从工厂到商店的运输物流。价值链考虑产品设计、研究和开发、广告和其它营销的贡献。甚至连帮助开发产品的律师、银行家、会计师和IT专家的工作也被考虑在内。

Porter’s value chain framework 波特的价值链框架

Harvard Business School’s Michael E. Porter was the first to introduce the concept of a value chain. Porter, who also developed the Five Forces Model to show businesses where they rank in competition in the current marketplace, discussed the value chain concept in his book Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. 哈佛商学院(Harvard Business School)的迈克尔·波特(Michael E. Porter)是第一个提出价值链概念的人。波特在他的书《竞争优势:创造和保持卓越的业绩》中讨论了价值链的概念

“Competitive advantage cannot be understood by looking at a firm as a whole,” Porter wrote. “It stems from the many discrete activities a firm performs in designing, producing, marketing, delivering and supporting its product. Each of these activities can contribute to a firm’s relative cost position and create a basis for differentiation.” 波特写道:“竞争优势不可能通过将一个公司作为一个整体来理解。” 它来源于一个公司在设计、生产、营销、交付和支持其产品时所进行的许多离散的活动。这些活动中的每一项都可以为企业的相对成本地位做出贡献,并为差异化创造基础。”

In his book, Porter splits a business’s activities into two categories: primary and support. Primary activities include the following: 在他的书中,波特将企业活动分为两类:主要活动和支持活动。主要活动包括:

  • Inbound logistics includes the receiving, storing and distributing of raw materials used in the production process. 入站物流包括生产过程中原材料的接收、储存和分配。
  • Operations is the stage at which the raw materials are turned into the final product. 运营是指原材料转变成最终产品的阶段。
  • Outbound logistics is the distribution of the final product to consumers. 出站物流是将最终产品分配给消费者。
  • Marketing and sales involve advertising, promotions, sales-force organization, distribution channels, and pricing and managing the final product to ensure it targets the appropriate consumer groups. 市场营销和销售涉及广告、促销、销售组织、分销渠道、定价和管理最终产品,以确保它针对适当的消费群体。
  • Service is the activities needed to maintain the product’s performance after it has been produced, including installation, training, maintenance, repair, warranty and after-sale services. 服务是产品生产后维持其性能所需要的活动,包括安装、培训、维护、修理、保修和售后服务。

The support activities help the primary functions and comprise the following: 支助活动有助于主要的职能,并包括下列各点:

  • Procurement is how the raw materials for the product are obtained. 采购是产品的原材料是如何获得的。
  • Technology development can be used in the research and development stage, in how new products are developed and designed, and in process automation. 技术开发可以用于研发阶段,新产品的开发和设计,以及过程自动化。
  • Human resource management includes the activities involved in hiring and retaining the proper employees to help design, build and market the product. 人力资源管理包括雇佣和保留合适的员工以帮助设计、制造和销售产品的活动。
  • Firm infrastructure refers to an organization’s structure and its management, planning, accounting, finance and quality-control mechanisms. 公司基础设施指一个组织的结构及其管理、计划、会计、财务和质量控制机制。

Value chain management and mapping 价值链管理和映射

Value chain management is the process of organizing all activities to properly analyze them. The goal is to establish communication between the leaders of each stage to ensure the product is placed in the customers’ hands as seamlessly as possible. 价值链管理是组织所有活动对其进行适当分析的过程。目标是在每个阶段的领导者之间建立沟通,以确保产品尽可能无缝地交付给客户。

Managing these activities may involve reworking various systems, structures, processes, etc. The key is to find areas of potential innovation. Creating a strategy to develop processes is key to maintaining company value. It helps businesses to see exactly what areas they need to strengthen and how they can reduce costs. It also allows businesses to decide what is most important when thinking about the value they want to create. Mapping out a value chain can be a great way to visualize all processes and see how they’re impacting both the company and customers. 管理这些活动可能涉及对各种系统、结构、过程等进行返工。关键是找到潜在的创新领域。创建策略来开发流程是维护公司价值的关键。它帮助企业准确地了解他们需要加强哪些方面,以及他们如何能够降低成本。它还允许企业在考虑他们想要创造的价值时,决定什么是最重要的。绘制一个价值链可以是一个很好的方式来可视化所有的过程,看看他们是如何影响公司和客户。

Conducting the analysis 进行分析

According to Strategic Management Insight, there are two approaches to the value chain analysis: cost and differentiation advantage. 根据战略管理洞察力,价值链分析有两种方法:成本和差异化优势。

Cost advantage 成本优势

After identifying the primary and support activities, businesses should identify the cost drivers for each activity. A cost driver is something that affects the cost of an activity or process. Cost drivers can include the following: 在确定了主要的和支持的活动之后,企业应该确定每个活动的成本动因。成本驱动因素是影响活动或过程成本的因素。成本动因包括以下几个方面:

  • Work hours 工作时间
  • Machine use and setup 机器使用和设置
  • Wage rates 工资率
  • Materials used to make products 用于制造产品的材料
  • Shipping 运输

Your business should then identify links between activities, knowing that if costs are reduced in one area, they can be reduced in another. You can then identify opportunities to reduce overall costs. 然后,您的业务应该识别活动之间的联系,知道如果在一个领域降低了成本,那么在另一个领域也可以降低成本。然后你可以找到降低整体成本的机会。

Differentiation advantage 差异化优势

Identifying the activities that create the most value to customers is the priority. These can include the following: 确定那些能为客户创造最大价值的活动是最重要的。这些包括以下内容:

  • Using relative marketing strategies 使用相关营销策略
  • Knowing about products and systems 了解产品和系统
  • Answering phones faster 快接电话
  • Meeting customer expectations 满足客户期望

The next step is evaluating these strategies to improve the value. Focusing on customer service, increasing options to customize products or services, offering incentives, and adding product features are some of the ways to improve activity value. Lastly, businesses should identify differentiation that can be maintained, and which adds the most value. 下一步是评估这些策略以提高价值。关注客户服务,增加定制产品或服务的选项,提供奖励,增加产品特性,这些都是提高活动价值的方法。最后,企业应该识别可维护的差异,以及哪一个增加了最大的价值。

Goals and outcomes 目标和结果

The primary goal of the value chain analysis is to create or strengthen your business’s competitive advantage. If a company can create an advantage through a value chain analysis, it captures a competitive advantage and increases its overall profit. To capture a competitive advantage, a company maps out its specific activities within the five generic value chain activities and looks for ways to create efficiencies. 价值链分析的主要目标是创造或加强企业的竞争优势。如果一个公司可以通过价值链分析来创造优势,那么它就获得了竞争优势并增加了它的整体利润。为了获得竞争优势,公司在五个通用的价值链活动中规划出自己的具体活动,并寻找提高效率的方法。

Ideally, value chain analysis will help you identify areas that can be optimized for maximum efficiency and profitability. It is important, along with the mechanics of it all, to keep customers feeling confident and secure enough to remain loyal to your business. By analyzing and evaluating product quality and effectiveness of services, along with cost, your business can find and implement strategies to improve. 理想情况下,价值链分析将帮助您确定可以优化的领域,以获得最大的效率和利润。这是很重要的,以及所有的机制,以保持客户的信心和足够的安全,以保持对您的业务的忠诚。通过分析和评估产品质量和服务的有效性以及成本,您的企业可以找到并实施策略来改进。

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